Historically, terrorist groups have carried out different types of attacks against their enemies using different kinds of weapons to cause economic and social destabilization and death. The main goal of terrorist groups is to induce fear among their enemies and the general population. The challenge of fighting against terrorists’ groups is their unpredictability; they always find innovative methods to create inventive and new attack strategies, targets, and weapons. That is where the Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) come into play. IEDs are simple, inexpensive, accessible, concealable, and effective.

From shoes to pressure cookers, in the past decades, terrorists have surprised authorities with their ingenuity and creativity, by developing unconventional IEDs.Some of the best examples of how terrorists astonished the government with creative IEDs are: the Boston Marathon bombers that created an Improvised Explosive Device (IED) using a pressure cooker in 2013; Richard Reed the “Shoe Bomber” when he tried to detonate some plastic explosives that he concealed inside his shoes while being on the American Airlines Flight 63 from Paris to Miami in 2001; and the “Underwear Bomber” Umar Farouk, who tried to detonate plastic explosives concealed in his underwear while flying from Amsterdam to Detroit in 2009. IEDs are designed to defeat a specific target. In addition to the general population the next desired target is the emergency responders. IEDs are difficult to detect and protect against to, this is why emergency responders should be trained and exercised to prevent, detect, respond and protect from IEDs.

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