It is recognised that Heads of State and Government Leaders face many threats to their personal security. Recent events indicate there is also a growing threat of covert assassination or capability degradation using Chemical, Biological, or Radiological (CBR) agents. Publicized cases suggest this now a major challenge to close protection services.
 
CBR agents can be deployed in public or private settings and their use can be difficult to detect, diagnose or attribute. Standard medical training does not provide experience of the unique nature of CBR agents, their clinical effects and the required medical countermeasures. The conventional physician would struggle to identify and deal with a CBR attack.
 
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