Despite making limited reductions to their nuclear forces, both Russia and the USA have long-term programs under way to replace and modernize their nuclear warheads, missile and aircraft delivery systems, and nuclear weapon production facilities.

The Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) says all the nuclear weapon-possessing states are developing new nuclear weapon systems and modernizing their existing systems. “At the start of 2018 nine states – the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan, Israel and the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (North Korea) – possessed approximately 14,465 nuclear weapons. This marked a decrease from the approximately 14,935 nuclear weapons that SIPRI estimated these states possessed at the beginning of 2017,” SIPRI said in its findings. Read more